ACSIM Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management

AEDB-R Army Environmental Database –Restoration

AFB Air Force Base

AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foam

AOC Area of Concern
APHC Army Public Health Center

AR Army Regulation

ARAR Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate RequirementARL Army Research Laboratory
ARNG Army National Guard
ARNG-MTC Army National Guard - Maneuver Training Center
AROC Army Requirements Oversight Council
ARPA Archeological Resources Protection Act
ARPTP Archeological Resources Protection Training Program
ARRP Army Radon Reduction Program
ARSIC Army Range Sustainment Integration Council
ARSTAF Army staff AS Air Sparging
ASA(ALT) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology)
ASA(CW) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works)
ASA(FM&C) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management & Comptroller)
ASA(I&E) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and Environment)
ASA (IE&E) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy & Environment)
ASARC Army System Acquisition Review Council
ASC Army Senior Consultant
ASG Area Support Group
ASP Ammunition Supply Point
ASR Archive Search Report
ASRP Ammunition Stockpile Reliability Program
AST Above-ground Storage Tank
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTSWMO Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials
AT Abandoned Tank
ATC (U.S. Army) Aberdeen Test Center
ATEC (U.S.) Army Test and Evaluation Command
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
ATTACC Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity
ATV All Terrain Vehicle
ASVE Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction
AU Animal Unit
AUL Authorized User List
AUTODIN Automated Digital Information Network
AVGAS Aviation Gasoline
AVP Aerial Validation Plan
AWMA Air and Waste Management Association
AWQC Ambient Water Quality Criteria


BA Biological Assessment
BA Budget Area
BAA Broad Agency Announcement
BASOPS base operations
BAT Best Available Technology
BBS Bulletin Board System
BCA Base Closure Account
BCP Base Closure Plan
BCP BRAC Cleanup Plan
BCT BRAC Cleanup Team
BD/DR Building Demolition and Debris Removal
BDAT Best Demonstrated Available Technology
BEC BRAC Environmental Coordinator
BES Budget Estimate Submission
BFIST Bradley Fire Support Team
BFVS Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems
Bgs below ground surface
BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIFs Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
BLM Bureau of Land Management
BMP Best Management Practice
BMS Best Management System
BNCOC Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course
BO Biological Opinion
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BOR Bureau of Reclamation
BOS Battlefield Operating Systems
BPA Blanket Purchase Agreement
BRAC Base Realignment and Closure
BRAC ERP BRAC Environmental Restoration Program
BRACO Base Realignment and Closure Office
BSB Base Support Battalion
BTAG Biological Technical Assistance Group
BTC BRAC Transition Coordinator
BTEX Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene


C&D Construction and Demolition
CA Cooperative Agreement
CA Comprehensive Agreement
CA Commercial Activity
CAA Clean Air Act
CAAA Clean Air Act Amendments
CADD Computer-Aided Design and Drafting
CAG Community Advisory Group
CAIRA Chemical Accident/Incident Response and Assistance
CAIS Chemical Agent Identification Sets
Cal/EPA California Environmental Protection Agency
CAM Compliance Assurance Monitoring
CAMU Corrective Action Management Unit
CAP Corrective Action Plan
CAP Conservation Assistance Program
CAR Chief, Army Reserve
CARB California Air Resources Board
CARC Chemical Agent Resistant Compound
CARD Cost Analysis Requirements Description
CAS Chemical Abstract System
CATCHMAT Centralized Army Tracking and Control of Hazardous Material
CBDCOM (U.S. Army) Chemical and Biological Defense Command
CBEP Community Based Environmental Protection
CBI Confidential Business Information
CBT Computer-Based Training
CC Compliance Cleanup
CCAR Coordinating Committee for Automotive Repair
CCMB Configuration Control Management Board
CCMP Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan
CCP Comprehensive Conservation Plan
CDC Centers for Disease Control
CDC Contained Detonation Chamber
CDNL C-weighted day-night level
CEAC Cost and Economics Analysis Center
CECOM Communications Electronics Command
CECOS Civil Engineer Corps Officers' School
CEE Center for Environmental Education
CEI Compliance Evaluation Inspection
CEMP Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan
CEPPO Chemical Emergency and Preparedness Office
CEQ Council on Environmental Quality
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CERCLIS Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System
CERFA Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act
CERL (U.S. Army) Corps of Engineers Construction and Engineering Research Laboratory
CESQG Conditionally Exempt Small-Quantity Generator
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CG Coast Guard
CG Commanding General
CHAMMP Comprehensive Hazardous Material Management Programs
CHF Contaminant Hazard Factor
CHPPM (U.S. Army) Center for Health Promotion and Prevention
CHRIMP Consolidated Hazardous Material Reutilization and Inventory Management Program
CI Community Involvement
CIC (U.S. EPA) Community Involvement Coordinator
CICA Competition in Contracting Act
CINWL Commercial Industrial Nonhazardous Waste Landfill
CISWI Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incinerator
CLIN Contract Line Item Number
CM Configuration Management
CMA Chemical Materials Agency
CMI Corrective Measures Implementation
CMI(C) Corrective Measures Implementation - Construction
CMI(O) Corrective Measures Implementation - Operations
CMPSC Charles Melvin Price Support Center
CMS Corrective Measures Study
CN Chloroacetophenone (Riot Gas)
CO Carbon Monoxide
COC Chemical of Concern
COE Corps of Engineers
COL Colonel
Contam Contaminated
CONUS Continental United States
CONUS Contiguous United States
COPC Contaminants of Potential Concern
COPEC Chemicals of Potential Ecological Concern
COR Contracting Officer's Representative
COTS Commercial Off The Shelf
CPA Chief, Public Affairs
CPAF Cost Plus Award Fee
CPFF Cost Plus Fixed Fee
CPG Comprehensive Procurement Guide
CPIF Cost Plus Incentive Fee
CPOL Civilian Personnel Online
CRA Continuing Resolution Authority
CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreements
CRB Cost Review Board
CREO Central Regional Environmental Office
CRM Cultural Resources Manager
CRO Community Reuse Organization
CRP Community Relations Plan
CRP Conservation Reserve Program
CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
CRWQCB California Regional Water Quality Control Board
CS Confirmation Study
CSA Chief of Staff, Army
CSM Conceptual Site Model
CSO Combined Sewer Overflow
CSR Code of State Regulations
CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
CTC Cost To Complete
CTC Concurrent Technologies Corporation
CTIC Conservation Technology Information Center
CTT Closing, Transferring and Transferred ranges
CWA Clean Water Act
CWF Civil Works Facility
CX Categorical Exclusion
CY Calendar Year, Current Year
CZARA Coastal Zone Ace Reauthorization Amendments
CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act


D&R ROD Disposal and Reuse Record of Decision
DA Department of the Army
DA PAM Department of the Army pamphlet
DAB Defense Acquisition Board
DAC Defense Ammunition Center
DAIG Department of the Army Inspector General
DASA (E&S) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Energy and Sustainability)
DASA (ESOH) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health)
DASA (IHP) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Housing and Partnerships)
DASA (R&T) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research and Technology)
DASA (DI) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Strategic Integration)
dB Decibel
dBA Decibel, A-weighted
dBC Decibel, C-weighted
dBP Decibel, unweighted (peak)
DBP Disinfection Byproduct
DBPR Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
DCM Decision Criteria Matrix
DCS, G-9 Deputy Chief of Staff, G-9
DD Decision Document
DDD Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
DDE Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene
DDESB Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board
DDOU Drum Disposal Operable Unit
DDR&E Defense Research and Engineering
DDS Data Delivery System
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DEA Data Exchange Agreement
DEH Directorate of Engineering and Housing
DEHNR Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources
DEI Directorate of Environmental Integration
DEIS Draft Environmental Impact Statement
DEMIS Defense Environmental Management Information System
DENIX Defense Environmental Network and Information eXchange
DEP Director of Environmental Programs
DERA Defense Environmental Restoration Account
DERP Defense Environmental Restoration Program
DERTF Defense Environmental Response Task Force
DES Design
DESCIM Defense Environmental Security Corporate Information Management
DESIC Defense Environmental Security International Cooperation
DFAS Defense Finance Accounting Service
DFAS Defense Financial Accounting System
DFD Design for Demilitarization
DFEL Directorate of Facilities Engineering and Logistics
DFSC Defense Fuel Supply Center
DFSP Defense Fuel Support Point
DFW Dallas/Fort Worth
DGSC Defense General Supply Center
DISC4 Director of Information Systems for Command, Control, Communication, and Computers
DLA Defense Logistics Agency
DMM Discarded Military Munitions
DNA Defense Nuclear Agency
DNL Day-Night Level
DNR Department of Natural Resources
DNT Dinitrotoluene
DoD Department of Defense
DODD Department of Defense Directive
DODI Department of Defense Instruction
DODIG Department of Defense Inspector General
DOE Department of Energy
DOI Department of the Interior
DOIT Development of Onsite Innovative Technologies
DOJ Department of Justice
DOL Directorate of Logistics
DOPAA Description of the Proposed Action and Alternatives
DOT Department of Transportation
DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organizations, Training, Materiel, Leadership and Education, Personnel, and Facilities
DPG Defense Planning Guidance
DPTM Directorate of Plans, Training and Mobilization
DPW Directorate of Public Works
DQM Data Quality Management
DQO Data Quality Objective
DRA Defense Reauthorization Act
DRID Defense Reform Initiative Directive
DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
DRMS Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service
DSA Deputy for System Acquisition
DSERTS Defense Site Environmental Restoration Tracking System
DSMOA Defense-State Memoranda of Agreement
DSRP Drainage Structure Removal Program
DST Decision Support Tools
DTLOMS Doctrine, Training, Leader Development, Organization, Materiel Requirements and Soldier Support
DTPs Detailed Test Plans
DTSC Department of Toxic Substances Control
DU Dobson Unit
DUSD (ES) Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environmental Security)
DWNS Drinking Water Needs Survey
DWTP Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant


E&P Exploration and Production
E/P Evaporation and Percolation
EA Executive Agent
EA Environmental Assessment
EBS Environmental Baseline Survey
ECAMP Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program
ECAP Environmental Compliance Assessment Program
ECAR Environmental Compliance Assessment Report
ECAS Environmental Compliance Assessment System
ECHO Enforcement and Compliance History Online
ECM Environmental Climate Model
ECOP Environmental Condition of Property
ECOS Environmental Council of the States
ECP Engineering Change Proposal
ECSR Environmental Compliance Status Report
EDB Ethylene Dibromide
EE/CA Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis
EFARS Engineer Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
EFI Efficient Facilities Initiative
EI/AA Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Analysis
EIA Environmental Impact Analysis
EIAP Environmental Impact Analysis Process
EIR Environmental Impact Report
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
EITM Environmental Information Technology Management
EL/RAMP Environmental Legislative/Regulatory Analysis and Monitoring Program
ELCCE Environmental Life Cycle Cost Estimates
ELD Environmental Law Division
ELS Environmental Law Specialist
EMMA Explosives Munitions Manufacturing Area
EMR Environmental Management Review
EMS Environmental Management System
EMT Environmental Management Team
ENF Enforcement Action
ENMP Environmental Noise Management Program
ENVEIS Environmental Engineering Information System
EO Executive Order
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPAR Environmental Program Assessment Report
EPA-RTP EPA-Research Triangle Park
EPAAS Environmental Performance Assistance and Assessment System
EPAS Environmental Performance Assessment System
EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
EPCRA-TRI Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act-Toxic Release Inventory
EPIC Environmental Process Improvement Center
EPR Environmental Program Requirements
EPR Extended Product Responsibility
EPRWeb Environmental Program Requirements Web
EPS Environmental Performance Standards
EQ Environmental Quality
EQB Environmental Quality Board
EQCC Environmental Quality Control Committee
EQIA Environmental Quality Impact Analysis
EQLCCE Environmental Quality Life Cycle Cost Estimate
EQR Environmental Quality Report
EQT Environmental Quality Technology
E&RC Environmental and Readiness Center
ER Engineer Regulation
ER Environmental Restoration
ER,A Environmental Restoration
ERA Ecological Risk Assessment, Army
ERC Emission Reduction Credit
ERCM Environmental Regulatory Climate Model
ERDC (U.S. Army) Engineer Research and Development Center
ERIS Environmental Restoration Information System
ER-L Environmental Response-Low
ERNS Emergency Response Notification System
ERP Environmental Restoration Program
ERRS Emergency and Rapid Response Services
ERTP Environmental Response Training Program
ESA Endangered Species Act
ESC EQT Steering Committee
ESD Explanation of Significant Differences
ESH Environmental, Safety and Health
ESI Expanded Site Inspection
ESMG Endangered Species Management Guideline
ESMP Endangered Species Management Plan
ESOH Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health
ESRM Environmental Support to Ranges and Munitions
ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
ESTCP Environmental Strategic Technology Certification Program
ESTRG Environmental Security Technology Requirements Group
ETI Extraction, Treatment, and Infiltration
ETMD Environmental Training and Management Division
ETR Extraction, Treatment, and Reinjection
ETTC Environmental Technology Transfer Committee
ETWG Environmental Training Workgroup
EVR Enhanced Vapor Recovery
EW Extraction Well


FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FACNET Federal Acquisition Computer Network
FAD Funding Authorization Document
FAQs Frequently Asked Questions
FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations
FARA Federal Acquisition Reform Act
FASA Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act
FASTT Field Assistance Support and Technology Transfer
FCA Full Cost Accounting
FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change
FDA Federal Drug Administration
FDEP Florida Department of Environmental Protection
FDNR Florida Department of Natural Resources
FEIR Final Environmental Impact Report
FEIS Final Environmental Impact Statement
FEMA (U.S.) Federal Emergency Management Agency
FES Fielding Environmental Solutions
FFA Federal Facility Agreement
FFCA Federal Facilities Compliance Act
FFEO Federal Facilities Enforcement Office
FFERDC Federal Facilities Environmental Restoration Dialogue Committee
FFP Firm Fixed Price
FFS Focused Feasibility Study
FFSRA Federal Facility Site Remediation Agreement
FGS Final Governing Standards
FHM Forest Health Monitoring
FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
Flam Flammable
FLETC Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
FM Facilities Management
FMR Fair Market Rent
FMU Forest Management Unit
FOA Field Operating Activity
FOIA Freedom of Information Act
FONSI Finding Of No Significant Impact
FORSCOM (U.S. Army) Forces Command
FOSET Finding of Suitability to Early Transfer
FOSL Finding of Suitability to Lease
FOST Finding of Suitability to Transfer
FOTW Federally Owned Treatment Works
FOUO For Official Use Only
FoV Family of Vehicles
FPI Fixed Price Incentive
FR Federal Register
FRA Final Remedial Action
FRTR Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable
FS Feasibility Study
FSP Field Sampling Plan
Ft feet
FTA Fire Training Area
FTC Federal Track Coordinator
FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared System
FUA Facility Use Agreement
FUDS Formerly Used Defense Sites
FWCA Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Act
FY Fiscal year
FYDP Future Year Defense Plan


G3 Staff operations office at Army division level or above
G4 Staff logistics office at Army division level or above
GAC Granular Activated Carbon
Gal/d Gallons per day
GAO General Accounting Office
GC Gas Chromatographic
GC arrison Commander
GC/MS Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer
GCP General Construction Permit
GETS Groundwater Extraction and Treatment System
FPR Guaranteed Fixed Price Remediation
GIS Geographic Information System
G&M Gun and Mortar
GMS Groundwater Modeling System
GO General Officer
GOCO Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated
GPS Global Positioning System
GPD Gallons Per Day
GPM Gallons per minute
GPO Government Printing Office
GPR Ground Penetrating Radar
GPRA Government Performance and Results Act
GRFL Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory
GSA General Services Administration
GW Groundwater
GW OU Groundwater Operating Unit
GWAAP Groundwater Assessment and Abatement Plan
GWETER Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Effectiveness Reviews
GWQA Groundwater Quality Assessment
GWTP Groundwater Treatment Plan


HA Health Assessment
Ha Hectares
HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant
HAZMAT Hazardous Materials
HAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
HAZWRAP Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program
HB House Bill
HE High Explosives
HEAST Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables
HFCs Hydrofluorcarbons
HGA Houston/Galveston Area
HHW Household Waste
HI Hazard Index
HJR House Joint Resolution
HM Hazardous Material
HMIRS Hazardous Materials Information Resource System
HMIS Hazardous Material Information System
HMIWI Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator
HMMP Hazardous Materials Management Program
HMTA Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
HMX cyclotetramethylene
HMX High Melting Point Explosive
HN Host Nation
HPC Historic Properties Component
HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography
HQ Headquarters
HQAES HeadquartersArmy Environmental System
HQ FORSCOM Headquarters US Army Forces Command
HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
HQDA, G-3 Headquarters, Department of the Army G-3 (Operations)
HQDA, G-4 Headquarters, Department of the Army G-4 (Logistics)
HRR Historical Records Review
HRS Hazard Ranking System
HRS2 Hazardous Ranking System Score
HRVOC Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds
HSB House Study Bill
HSMS Hazardous Substance Management System
HSP Health and Safety Plan
HSSA Health Service Support Area
HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984
HTRW Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste
HTW Hazardous and Toxic Waste
HUTA High-use Target Area
HVLP High Volume Low Pressure
hW Hazardous Waste


I&M Inspection and Maintenance
IA Installation Assessment
IAGWSP Impact Area Groundwater Study Program
I/I Infiltration and Inflow
IAAP Iowa Army Ammunition Plant
IAC Iowa Administrative Code
IAG Interagency Agreement
IAP Installation Action Plan
IART Impact Area Review Team
IAS Initial Assessment Study
IBR Incorporated by Reference
IC Installation Commander
ICAP Installation Corrective Action Plan
ICM Interim Corrective Measure
ICRMP Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan
ID Identification
IDIQ Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity
IDNR Iowa Department of Natural Resources
IDSR Interim Data Summary Report
IDW Investigation-Derived Waste
IESWTR Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
IETO Interagency Environmental Technologies Office
IG Inspector General
IGC Independent Government Cost Estimate
IGCE Independent Government Cost Estimate
IIA Initial Installation Assessment
IIAP Installation Internal Assessment Plan
ISC Installation Steering Committee
ILA Initial Installation Assessment
IM Interim Measures
IMA Installation Management Agency
IMCOM (U.S. Army) Installation Management Command
IMI Installation Management Institute
IMLUCC Interagency Military Land Use Coordination Committee
IMR Installation Management Region Office
INRMP Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan
INSTEP International Society of Technical and Environmental Professionals
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change
IPM Integrated Pest Management
IMP(C) Implementation (Construction)
IMP(O) Implementation (Operation)
INV Investigation
IPMC Installation Pest Management Coordinator
IPMP Integrated Pest Management Plan
IPR In Process Review
IPR In Progress Review
IPT Integrated Process Team
IRA Interim Remedial Action
IRDMIS Installation Restoration Data Management Information System
IRIS Integrated Risk Information System
IRP Installation Restoration Program
IS Industry Standard
ISC Information Systems Command
ISCO In situ Chemical Oxidation
ISCP Installation Spill Contingency Plan
ISEERB Interservice Environmental Education Review Board
ISMA Installation Support Management Activity
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISP Installation Sustainability Programs
ISR Installation Status Report
ISR-II Installation Status Report-Environment
ISSA Inter/Intra-Service Support Agreement
ISV In situ Volatilization
ISWM Integrated Solid Waste Management
ISWMP Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan
ITAM Integrated Training Area Management
ITR Independent Technical Reviews
ITRC Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
ITRO Interservice Training Review Organization
IW Industrial Waste
IWAM Installation Workplan Analysis Module
IWFMP Integrated Wildland Fire Management Plan
IWTF Industrial Wastewater Treatment Facility
IWTP Industrial Waste Treatment Plant
IWWS Industrial Waste Water Sewer


JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
JG-APP Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention
JMC Joint Munitions Command
JP-4 Jet Propellant Number 4
JRTC Joint Readiness Training Center


KAR Kansas Administrative Rules
KCMA Kansas City Metropolitan Area
KDA Kansas Department of Agriculture
KDHE Kansas Department of Health and Environment
Kg Kilogram
KO Contracting Officer
kW Kilowatt


L Liter
LAC Louisiana Administrative Code
LACMD Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense
LAMW Low-Activity Mixed Waste
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
LAP Load, Assemble And Pack
LAP Load-Assemble-Package
LB Legislative Bill
LBP Lead-Based Paint
LCAAP Lake City Army Ammunition Plant
LCCE Life-Cycle Cost Estimates
LCM Land Condition Module
LCTA Land Condition Trend Analysis
LD Legal Driver
LDEQ Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
LDR Land Disposal Restriction
LEL Lower Explosive Limit
LEPC Local Emergency Planning Committee
LF Landfill
LHA Lifetime Health Advisory
LIA Logistics Integration Agency
LID Low Impact Development
LLRW Low-Level Radioactive Waste
LOCID Location Identification
LOEL Lowest Observed Effects Level
LOI Letter of Instruction
LPDES Louisiana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
LPST Leaking Petroleum Storage Tank
LQG Large Quantity Generator
LRA Local Redevelopment Authority
LRAM Land Rehabilitation and Maintenance
LSI Listing Site Inspection
LT1ESWTR Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
LT2ESWTR Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
LT3 Low Temperature Thermo Treatment
LTM Long-Term Monitoring
LTO Long-Term Operation
LUC Land Use Control
LUPZ Land Use Planning Zone
LURS Land Use Requirements Statement


M2R Military Munitions Rule
MAAP Milan Army Ammunition Plant
MACOM Major Army Command
MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology
MAG Magazine
MAINT Maintenance
MAIS Major Automated Information System
MAJCOM Major Command
MARKS Modern Army Record Keeping System
MARSSIM Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual
MATL Material
MBTA Migratory Bird Treaty Act
MC Munitions Constituents
MCA Military Construction, Army
MCB Marine Corps Base
MCAAP McAlester Army Ammunition Plant
MCAGCC Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center
MCAS Marine Corps Air Station
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLB Marine Corps Logistics Base
MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MDAP Major Defense Acquisition Program
MDC Maximum Detected Concentration
MDL Method detection limit
MDNR Maryland Department of Natural Resources
MDNR Missouri Department of Natural Resources
MDS Minimum Desirable Streamflow
MDW Military District of Washington
MEC Munitions and Explosives of Concern
MEDCEN Medical Center
MEDCOM U.S. Army Medical Command
MEDDAC Medical Department Activity
MEG Military Environmental Group
MEK Methyl Ethyl Ketone
MEP Master Environmental Plan
MEPS Material/Environmental/Packaging/Special Process
MET Material/Environment Team
MFR Memorandum for Record
Mg milligrams
mg/kg Milligrams per Kilogram
mg/L Milligram per liter
mg/yr Megagrams per year
MGD Million Gallons Per Day
MIDIS Military Item Disposal Instruction System
MILCON Military Construction
MIPR military interdepartmental purchase request
MLRS Multi Launch Rocket System
MMR Massachusetts Military Reservation
MMRP Military Munitions Response Program
MNA Monitored Natural Attenuation
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOARNG Missouri Army National Guard
MOGAS Motor Gasoline
MOM Measure of Merit
MOS Military Occupational Specialty
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MP Military Police
MP Mortar Position
MP&M Metal Products and Machinery
MPEO Master Plan Environmental Overlay
MPF Migration Pathway Factor
MPH Miles Per Hour
MPPEH Management of Material Presenting Potential Explosive Hazard
MPRSA Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
MPS Minimum Performance Standards
MR Military Munitions Rule
MRDLGs Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals
mrem millirem
mrem/yr millirem per year
MRS Munitions Response Site
MRSPP Munitions Response Site Prioritization ProtocolMS4 Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
MSC Major Subordinate Command
MSC Mission Support Contract
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
MSWG Multi-State Working Group
MSWLF Municipal Solid Waste Landfill
MSWTS Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station
MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
MTC Maneuver Training Center
MTCA Model Toxics Control Act
MTF Medical Treatment Facility
MTMC Military Traffic Management Command
MVEB Motor Vehicle Emission Budget
MVECP Motor Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program
MW Monitoring Well
MWC Municipal Waste Combustion
MWG Munitions Workgroup
MWR Morale, Welfare, and Recreation


NA Natural Attenuation
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard
NAD Naval Ammunition Depot
NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
NAICS North American Industry Classification System
NAPL Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid
NAS Naval Air Station
NAS National Aerospace Standard
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command
NAWC Naval Air Warfare Center
NAWS Naval Air Weapons Station
NBC Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical
NCO Noncommissioned Officer
NCP National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan
NCPTT National Center for Preservation Technology and Training
NCS Naval Communication Station
ND Non-Detect
NDAA National Defense Authorization Act
NDCEE National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence
NDEQ Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality
NDIA National Defense Industrial Association
NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine
NE Not Evaluated
NEETF National Environmental Education & Training Foundation
NELP Navy Environmental Leadership Program
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act
NEPAIC National Environmental Policy Act Implementation Course
NERO IMA Northeast Regional Office of the Installation Management Agency
NESHAP National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NETDP National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program
NEtFOSAA N - ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid
NFA No Further Action
NFESC Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NFRAP No Further Response Action Planned
NG National Guard
NGB National Guard Bureau
NGWA National Ground Water Association
NHPA National Historic Preservation Act
NMAC New Mexico Administrative Code
NMED New Mexico Environment Department
NMeFOSAA N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid
NOAA National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
NOD Notice of Deficiency
NOI Notice of Intent
NOID Notice of Intent to Delete
NOR Notice Of Responsibility
NORM Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material
NOV Notice of Violation
NOx Nitrogen Oxides
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPDWR National Primary Drinking Water Regulation
NPL National Priorities List
NPS National Park Service
NPS Nonpoint Source
NQ Nitroguanidine
NR Not Required
NRC National Research Council
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service
NRD Natural Resource Damage
NRDA Natural Resource Damage Assessment
NREO Northern Regional Environmental Office
NREP National Registry of Environmental Professionals
NRHP National Register of Historic Places
NRI National Resources Inventory
NRI Natural Resource Injury
NRM Natural Resource Management
NRT Natural Resource Trustee
NRT National Response Team
NRTC National Research Trustee Council
NSDWR National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation
NSP New Source Performance
NSPS New Source Performance Standards
NSR New Source Review
NSWC Naval Surface Warfare Center
NTE Not To Exceed
NTI National Toxics Inventory
NTIS National Technical Information Service
NWCG National Wildfire Coordinating Group
NWIRP Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant
NWRO IMA Northwest Regional Office of the Installation Management Agency
NYS DEC New York State Department of Environmental Conservation


O&M Operation and Maintenance
OAC Oklahoma Administrative Code
OACSIM Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management
OAR Office of Air and Radiation
OASA (I&E) Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Logistics and Environment Installations
OB/OD Open Burning/Open Detonation
OC Office of Counsel
OCLL Office of the Chief, Legislative Liaison
OCONUS Outside the Continental United States
OCPA Office of the Chief of Public Affairs
OD Open Detonation
ODASA Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army
ODASA-CE Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Cost and Economics
ODC Ozone-Depleting Chemical
ODCSOPS Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans
ODEC Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality
ODEP Office of the Director of Environmental Programs
ODUSD (ES) Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security
OE Ordnance and Explosives
OEBGD Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document
OECA U.S. EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
OEESCM Operational and Environmental Executive Steering Committee on Munitions
OEMS Original Equipment Manufacturers
OERR Office of Emergency and Remedial Response
OEW Ordnance and Explosive Waste
OFEE Office of the Federal Environmental Executive
OFR Office of the Federal Register
OGC Office of General Counsel
OIPT Overarching Integration Process Team
OMA Operation and Maintenance Account
OMA Operations and Maintenance and Army
OMB Office of Management and Budget
OMEG Oklahoma Military Environmental Group
OPA Office of Public Affairs
OPA Other Procurements Army
OPM Office of Personnel Management
OPORD Operation Order
OPPA Oil Pollution and Prevention Act
OPPT U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
OPSEC Operations Security
ORC Office of Regional Counsel
ORD Operational Requirements Document
ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
ORV Off-Road Vehicle
ORVR Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery
OSC On-Scene Coordinator
OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSPRA Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act
OSSF On-Site Sewage Facility
OSW U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste
OSWER Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
OTJAG Office of the Judge Advocate General
OTSG Office of the Surgeon General
OU Operable Unit
OUST U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks
pWS Oil/Water Separator


P2 Pollution Prevention
P2&ETD Pollution Prevention and Environmental Technology Division
PA Programmatic Agreement
PA Preliminary Agreement
PA/SI Preliminary Assessment and Site Inspection
PA/VSI Preliminary Assessment and Visual Site Inspection
PAA Program Assistance Announcement
PACAF Pacific Air Forces
PAH Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon
PAL Plant-wide Applicability Limitation
PAM Pamphlet
PAMS Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations
PAO Public Affairs Office
PAPA Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis
PAS Preliminary Assessment Statement
PASS Permit Application Software System
PASS Procurement Automated Source System
PAT Process Action Team
PAYT Pays As You Throw
PB President's Budget
PBC Performance-Based Contracting
PBD Program Budget Decision
PBDE Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
PBR Permit By Rule
PBT Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxin
PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyl
PCDR Permanent Cleanup Document Repository
PCE Tetrachloroethylene
PCi/kg Pico curies per kilogram
PCi/l Pico curies per liter
PCOR Preliminary Closeout Report
PD Policy Decision
PDM Program Decision Memorandum
PDO Property Disposal Office
PDSC Professional Development Support Center
PEAR Project Accounting Report
PEECP Pilot Expedited Environmental Cleanup Program
PEIS Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement
PEMS Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems
PEO Program Executive Office
PER Permitting for Environmental Results
PESHE Programmatic Environment, Safety, and Health Evaluation
PF Problem Formulation
PFBA Perfluorobutanoic acid
PFBS Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid
PFDA Perfluorodecanoic acid
PFDoA Perfluorododecanoic acid
PFDS Perfluorodecane sulfonate
PFHpA Perfluoroheptanoic acid
PFHxA Perfluorohexanoic acid
PFHxS Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid
PFNA Perfluorononanoic acid
PFOA Perfluorooctanoic acid
PFOS Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
PFOSA Perfluorooctane sulfonamide
PFPeA Perfluoropentanoic acid
PFTA Perfluorotetradecanoic acid
PFTC Prescribed Fire Training Center
PFTrDA Perfluorotridecanoic acid
PFUnA Perfluoroundecanoic acid
PFCs Perfluorinated Carbons
PGRS Plume Groundwater Recovery System
PHC Petroleum Hydrocarbons
PID Photoionization Detector
PIP Public Involvement Plan
PL Public Law
PLANTS Plant list of Accepted Nomenclature, Taxonomy, and Symbols
PLI Private Lands Initiative
PLP Potentially Liable Person
PLS Planning Level Survey
PM Particulate Matter
PM Pest Management
PM Program, Project, or Product Manager
PMC Pest Management Consultant
PMCD Program Manager, Chemical Demilitarization
PMO Program Management Office
PMQAE Pest Management Quality Assurance Evaluator
PO Project Officer
POC Point Of Contact
POD Pacific Ocean Division
POL Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants
POM Program Objective Memorandum
POTW Publicly Owned Treatment Works
POV Privately-Owned Vehicle
POW Prisoner of War
PP Proposed Plan
PPB Parts Per Billion
PPBES Programming, Planning, Budgeting, and Execution System
PPBS Planning Programming and Budgeting System
PPM Part Per Million
PPMP Professional Pest Management Personnel
PR Procurement Request
PRG Preliminary Remediation Goal
PRP Potentially Responsible Party
PSD Prevention of Significant Deterioration
PST Petroleum Storage Tank
PSTFF Petroleum Storage Tank Trust Fund
PTE Potential To Emit
PTT Pillar Technology Teams
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PWS Public Water System
PY Prior Year


QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control
QAPP Quality Assurance Program Plan
QAPP Quality Assurance Project Plan
QRP Qualified Recycling Program


R&D Research and Development
RA Remedial Action
RA Removal Action
RA Risk Assessment
RA(C) Remedial Action - Construction
RA(O) Remedial Action - Operation
RAB Restoration Advisory Board
RAC Risk Assessment Code
RACER Remedial Action Cost Engineering Requirements
RACM Reasonably Available Control Measures
RACT Reasonably Available Control Technology
RAO Remedial Action Operation
RAOP Remedial Action - Operation
RAP Remedial Action Plan
RBAC Recycling and Reuse Business Assistance Center
RBC Risk Based Corrective Action
RBCA Risk Based Corrective Action
RC Regional Command
RC Response Complete
RCI Residential Communities Initiative
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCRIS RCRA Information System
RCS Reports Control System
RCTCS Restoration Cost To Complete System
RCW Red-Cockaded Woodpecker
RD Remedial Design
RD&D Research, Development and Demonstration
RD/RA Remedial Design and Remedial Action
RDO Research and Development Office
RDT&E Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation
RDX Royal Demolition eXplosive
REA Regional Executive Agent
REC Record of Environmental Consideration
REC Regional Environmental Center
REGFORM Regulatory Environmental Group for Missouri
REM Removal
REO Regional Environmental Office
RF Receptor Factor
RFA RCRA Facility Assessment
RfC Reference Concentration
RfD Reference Dose
RFG Reformulated Gasoline
RFI RCRA Facility Investigation
RFP Request for Proposal
RFR Request for Response
RI Remedial Investigation
RI/FS Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study
RI/RA Remedial Investigation / Risk Assessment
RICE Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine
RIFSAP Remedial Investigation Field Sampling and Analysis Plan
RIP Remedies in Place
RMAN Recovered Materials Advisory Notice
RMIS Restoration Management Information System
RMP Risk Management Plan
ROD Record of Decision
ROTC Reserve Officers' Training Corps
RPM Remedial Project Manager
RPMA Real Property Maintenance Account
RPMP Real Property Master Plan
RPR Repair
RPTS Reimbursable Programs Tracking System
RRA Rapid Response Action
RRAD Red River Army Depot
RRC Requirements Review Council
RRSE Relative Risk Site Evaluation
RRT Regional Response Team
RSC Regional Support Center
RSC Regional Support Command
RSC Reserve Support Command
RSUG Remote Sensing User Guide
RWQCB Regional Water Quality Control Board


S&A Supervision and Administration
S&R Supervision and Remediation
SA Secretary of the Army
SACM Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model
SADBU Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization
SAF Subject to Availability of Funds
SAFER Streamline Approach for Environmental Restoration
SAME Society of American Military Engineers
SAP Sampling and Analysis Plan
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
SAT Simplified Acquisition Threshold
SATA Superfund Analytical Technical Assistance
SB Senate Bill
SBA Small Business Administration
SC Site Closeout
SCA Service Contract Act
SCA Student Conservation Association
SCAPS Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System
SCP Spill Contingency Plan
SDC Strategic Defense Command
SDD Sustainable Design and Development
SDSDIE Spatial Data Standards for Facilities Infrastructure and Environment
SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act
SDWAA Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments
SDWIS Safe Drinking Water Information System
SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment
SECDEF Secretary of Defense
SEP System Engineering Process
SERC State Emergency Response Commission
SERDP Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
SERO IMA Southeast Regional Office of the Installation Management Agency
SERO IMA-ARD Southeast Regional Office of the Installation Management Agency - Army Reserve Division
SES Senior Executive Service
SF Slope Factor
SHA Site Hazard Assessment
SHPO State Historic Preservation Officer
SI Site Inspection
SIC Standard Industrial Classification
SIFO Site Investigation Follow-on
SIP State Implementation Plan
SITE Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation
SJA Staff Judge Advocate
SM Senate Measure
SMCLs Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels
SMIS Site Management Improvement Study
SOC Statement of Condition
SOFA Status of Forces Agreement
SOH Safety and Occupational Health
SOP Standard Operating Procedure; also Standing Operating Procedure
SOU Source Operable Unit
SOW Statement of Work
SOW Scope of Work
SPCC Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure
SPCCP Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan
SPEIM System Performance and Ecological Impact Monitoring
SPiRiT Sustainable Project Rating Tool
SQG Small Quantity Generator
SQI Submerged Quench Incinerator
SRAMP State Regulatory Analysis and Monitoring Program
SRCPP Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant
SREO Southern Regional Environmental Office
SRM Sustainment, Restoration, and Maintenance
SRP Sustainable Range Program
SRTV Soldiers Radio and Television
SS Surface Soil
SSA Sewage Sludge Application
SSES Sewer System Evaluation Survey
SSI Site Screening Inspection
SSL Soil Screening Level
SSO Sanitary Sewer Overflow
START Superfund Technical Assistance and Response Team
STCL Soil Target Cleanup Level
Std Standard
STGE Storage
STM Short-Term Measure
STP Sewage Treatment Plant
SVE Soil Vapor Extraction
SVOC Semi Volatile Organic Compound
SW Storm Water
SW Surface water
SWARS Solid Waste Annual Reporting System
SWDA Solid Waste Disposal Act
SWMU Solid Waste Management Unit
SWQS Surface Water Quality Standards


T for C Terminate for Convenience
T&E Threatened and Endangered Species
T&M Time and Material
TAC Texas Administrative Code
TACOM Tank-automotive and Armaments Command
TAG Technical Assistance Grant
TAPP Technical Assistance for Public Participation
TARDEC Tank and Automotive Research, Development & Engineering Center
TASC Technical Assistance Services for Communities
TB Technical Bulletin
TB MED Technical Bulletin, Medical
TBD To Be Determined
TC Training Circular
TCA Trichloroethane
TCE Trichloroethylene
TCEQ Texas Commission on Environment Quality
TCL Target Compound List
TCLP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
TCM Transportation Control Measure
TCP trichloropropane
TCRA Time-Critical Removal Action
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TEAM The Environmental Assessment Management
TECOM Test and Evaluation Command
TEMP Template Environmental Management Plan
TERC Total Environmental Restoration Contracts
TERP Texas Emissions Reduction Plan
THPO Tribal Historic Preservation Officer
TI Technical Impractibility
TIC Technical Information Center
TIM Transformation of Installation Management
TIM Technical Information Memorandum
TIPPP Tidewater Interagency Pollution Prevention Program
TJAG The Judge Advocate General
TM Technical Manual
TMDL Total Maximum Daily Load
TNC The Nature Conservancy
TNRCC Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission
TNT Trinitrotoluene
TO Task Order
TOA Trace Organic Analysis
TOA Total Obligation Authority
TOSC Technical Outreach Services for Communities
TPDES Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
TPH Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
TPM Technical Project Manager
TPY Tons Per Year
TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
TRC Technical Review Committee
TRI Toxic Release Inventory
TRI-DDS Toxic Release Inventory-Data Delivery System
TRRP Texas Risk Reduction Program
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
TSD Training Support Division
TSD Treatment, Storage or Disposal
TSDF Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility
TSDR Treatment, Storage, Disposal and Recycling
TSG The Surgeon General
TSP Total Suspended Particulates
TSS Total Suspended Solids
TU Temporary Unit
TXEP Texas Environmental Partnership


UDEQ Utah Department of Environmental Quality
UDLPGSD United Defense Limited Partnership Ground Division
UFR Unfinanced Requirement
ug/g Micrograms per gram
ug/l Microgram Per Liter
UIC Underground Injection Control
URA Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970
USAAA U.S. Army Audit Agency
USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USACERL U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories
USACHPPM U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine
USACMDA U.S. Army Chemical Materiel Destruction Agency
USACOE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USAEC U.S. Army Environmental Center
USAEC U.S. Army Environmental Command
USAEHA U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (currently called USACHPPM)
USAES U.S. Army Engineer School
USAF United States Air Force
USAFA U.S. Air Force Academy
USAFE U.S. Air Force Europe
USAG U.S. Army Garrison
USAG-AK U.S. Army Garrison, Alaska
USAIC U.S. Army Infantry Center
USAIS U.S. Army Infantry School
USAMC U.S. Army Materiel Command
USAMRAA U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity
USAPHC U.S. Army Public Health Command
USAR U.S. Army Reserves
USARC U.S. Army Reserve Command
USAREUR U.S. Army Europe
USARJ U.S. Army Japan
USARNG U.S. Army National Guard
USARPAC U.S. Army Pacific
USARSO U.S. Army Southern Command
USASSDC U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command
USATHAMA U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (currently called USAEC)
USC United States Code
USCG U.S. Coast Guard
USD(AT&L) Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics)
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA-FS U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service
USDA-SCS U.S. Department of Agriculture - Soil Conservation Service
USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
USFS U.S. Forest Service
USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
USMA U.S. Military Academy
USNA U.S. Naval Academy
USSMDC U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command
UST Underground Storage Tank
UTL Upper Tolerance Limit
UTES Unit Training Equipment Site
UU/UE Unlimited Use/Unrestricted Exposure
UVA Ultraviolet A
UVB Ultraviolet B
UXO Unexploded Ordnance


VEH Vehicle
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
VRP Voluntary Remediation Program
VSI Visual Site Inspection


WA Wilderness Act
WBS Work Breakdown Structure
WCAP Wastewater Compliance Assessment Protocol
WES Corps of Engineers Waterways Experimental Station
WET Whole Effluent Toxicity
WIN/INFORMED Waste Information Needs/Information Needs for Making Environmental Decisions
WMM Waste Military Munitions
WPM Waste Profile Notice
WQBEL Water Quality Based Effluent Limit
WQI Watershed Quality Index
WQMP Water Quality Management Plan
WREO Western Regional Environmental Office
WRMP Water Resources Management Plan
WSRA Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
WTA Washrack Treatment Area
WWT Wastewater Treatment
WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plant
WWTS Wastewater Treatment System


XRF X-Ray Fluorescence