Badger Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) has four Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) sites where work is ongoing: BAAP-012, BAAP-35, BAAP-40, and CC-BAAP-44. Their status is described below. Click here for the schedule for the ACTIVE SITES. Click here for the schedule for the INACTIVE SITES.

Active Sites

BAAP-012 (Groundwater Monitoring On- and Off-Post)

Site BAAP-012 addresses groundwater conditions in and around Badger AAP. The Army has conducted numerous site investigations and remedial actions at the former BAAP property.  Groundwater investigation activities at BAAP began in 1980.  Site-wide groundwater investigations identified four groundwater plumes:  Propellant Burning Ground (PBG) Plume, Central Plume, Deterrent Burning Ground (DBG) Plume, and Nitrocellulose Production Area (NC Area) Plume. 

The regional groundwater flow direction in the BAAP area is south-southeast towards the Wisconsin River.  The Wisconsin River acts as a discharge point for groundwater east and south of BAAP.  Based on historical groundwater sampling data, groundwater is contaminated by chlorinated solvents and explosives.  While other contaminants of concern were detected, it is unlikely these contaminants are site related.  

The Army has replaced seven residential drinking water wells due to groundwater impacts associated with the BAAP groundwater plumes.  Three residential wells were impacted by the PBG Plume where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected above WDNR NR 140 Enforcement Standards (ES).  Three residential wells were impacted by the Central Plume where total DNT concentrations exceeded the NR 140 ES.  The final residential well replaced was impacted by the DBG Plume where total DNT concentrations exceeded the NR 140 ES.  All seven residential wells withdrew water from the shallow sand and gravel aquifer.  

Remedial activities addressing source areas for the four groundwater contaminant plumes have been implemented.  Soil remedial actions addressed the source areas to the maximum extent possible and minimized the potential exposure to human health based on anticipated future land use at the former BAAP.  The Army has received site closure from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources on all soil remedial actions.

The Army has finalized the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) for groundwater at Badger AAP and are working on a Proposed Plan. The contaminants of concern identified in the RI have an associated current or hypothetical future risk.  The FS evaluated potential response actions for the identified risks.   The Army’s preferred alternative or remedy will be presented in the Proposed Plan; the remedy will be based on the results of the RI/FS.  The Proposed Plan will briefly summarize the remedial investigation and the remedial alternatives evaluated in this RI/FS, highlighting the key factors that led to identifying the preferred alternative.  The Army submitted the Proposed Plan to the regulatory agencies in February 2023 and will release to the public for review after regulator review is completed.  There will be a public comment period and public meeting specifically for the Proposed Plan. After this review, the Army will release a Decision Document that documents the selected remedy, certifies that the remedy selection process was carried out in accordance with CERCLA, and addresses public comments on the Proposed Plan. TOP

BAAP-35 (Cap & Cover Maintenance)

Site BAAP-35 is used to track long-term care requirements for the following closed sites to ensure that all requirements are met: the Propellant Burning Ground area caps and covers (Racetrack Area soil cover, Landfill No. 1 cap, and the combined Propellant Burning Ground pits/1949 pit caps), caps at Landfills No. 5 and 3118, and the Deterrent Burning Ground area/Landfill No. 3 cap. Contaminants of concern (COCs) at BAAP-35 are metals in groundwater and soil.

The Propellant Burning Ground Racetrack Area was used to burn propellants that were outside specification limits and was later permitted by the state as the hazardous waste thermal treatment unit. The area was closed in 1994 following soil removal and placement of a soil cover. Landfill No. 1 received solid waste and ash between 1944 and 1955, and was capped in 1997. The 1949 pit area was used for open burning of wastes after 1944 through the 1950s, and was backfilled in 1962. An engineering cap was placed on the area in 1998 and it was formally closed; the cap was extended in 2008 to cover the Propellant Burning Ground waste pits. Landfill No. 5 was closed in 2001 and Landfill 3118 was closed in 2009. Landfill No. 3 was capped as part of the Deterrent Burning Ground which was closed in 2003. Long-term operation and maintenance, in accordance with WDNR regulations, will continue for these specific sites.

The Army is beginning the second five-year review of remedial actions implemented at Badger AAP to determine if selected remedies are operating as intended and still protective of human health and the environment. TOP

BAAP-40 (Gruber's Grove Bay)

Site BAAP-40 addresses contamination of sediments at Gruber's Grove Bay. During operations of the propellant plant, Gruber's Grove Bay received plant discharge waters. COCs at BAAP-40 are metals in sediments. Sampling of sediments in 1998 and 1999 identified elevated concentrations of lead, mercury, zinc, and ammonia. The selected remedy for the site was dredging of sediments which were then treated and sprayed on agricultural land on the installation. Dredging activities were conducted between June and November 2001. The tubes used to transfer the dredged material were buried-in-place north of the settling ponds and were covered in September 2002. Restoration activities were considered complete until 2004 and 2005 when additional investigations identified elevated concentrations of metals in sediments. The Army received a letter from the WDNR on May 5, 2005, recommending sediment removal or an additional ecological risk assessment. Re-dredging was completed in 2006, and the laydown area was covered in 2007. Confirmatory sampling was used to verify completion of remedial activities; however, subsequent sampling by the Army and the WDNR identified concentrations of mercury above the cleanup level.

A review to determine if additional remediation was required at the site was initiated by WDNR in 2009, and the Army was requested to evaluate activities that would restore sediments to levels protective of benthic organisms. Additional sediment sampling of the entire bay was requested by WDNR and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on April 1, 2014 before the site could be closed and removed from the USEPA Section 303(d) list of impaired waters. Sampling conducted in February 2016 identified remaining mercury contamination. In July 2017, WDNR requested further discussions with the Army to determine the next steps for addressing mercury in sediment. Army and WDNR representatives met in October 2017 to discuss the path forward for GGB. In a January 2018 letter, WDNR requested the Army continue remedial actions to remove the low density mercury-contaminated sediment to meet the cleanup goal of 0.36 mg/kg specified in the decision document for GGB.

The Army completed sampling in June 2018 to determine the current depth of mercury contamination within GGB; previous sampling efforts delineated the horizontal boundaries of mercury contamination in GGB. We will use this information to evaluate the most appropriate dredging method and technology for removal of the GGB sediments. The Army will develop a plan, in coordination with WDNR, to address the low density mercury-contaminated sediments in GGB and will share the plan, the results of the sampling and an explanation of the technology we will use with the public.

After two previous dredging efforts, sediment sampling results in 2009 and 2016 demonstrated a downward trend of total mercury in GGB sediments; however, the cleanup goal established in the GGB decision document have not been met. WDNR recommended some new technologies that have the potential to increase the effectiveness of contaminated sediment removal and provide a more complete long-term solution. The Army awarded a contract in 2022 to relook at the remedial alternatives, identify and eliminate data gaps, determine the risk to human health and the environment and identify remedial alternatives. Work is ongoing. TOP

CC-BAAP-44 (Abandoned Industrial Sewer Network)

Site CC-BAAP-44 addresses installation-wide remediation debris disposed of at Landfill 3646 associated with abandoned production area sewers, sewer piping, and previously undocumented shallow drains. Sewer piping was found throughout the production areas in poor condition with collapses and damage. COCs at CC-BAAP-44 are explosives, metals, VOCs, and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) in soils.

Initial Remedial Investigation (RI) activities included location surveys, safety oversight, removal of overlying structures and soil, rerouting of the active Bluffview sanitary sewer line, and sample collection and analysis. Debris from the remediation activities disposed of at the landfill was capped, and final approval was received on March 7, 2014. Site closure was completed in fiscal year 2015. WDNR regulations require continued groundwater monitoring, long-term operations and maintenance of the landfill, and remediation of caps and covers. Long-term monitoring is planned until fiscal year 2054.

The Army is beginning the second five-year review of remedial actions implemented at Badger AAP to determine if selected remedies are operating as intended and still protective of human health and the environment. TOP

Inactive Sites